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法国惊现六座蒙古包?这其实是个难民营第1张图片

为移民和旅行者提供的临时住宅
Shelter for Migrants and Travelers / Atelier RITA

由专筑网王沛儒,李韧编译

临时住宅

这个项目由ONG Emmaus solidarity ite委托设计,目的是缓解不断增长的难民居住危机。建筑地处郊区城镇伊纳河畔伊夫里的老水厂,场地面积约为90000平方米,这个全新的城市项目便位于此。

TO OFFER REFUGE
This project is commissioned by the ONG Emmaüs Solidarité, as part of the attempt to provide a solution to the refugees constant arrivals. The project takes place in Ivry-sur-Seine, a suburban city, on an old water’s factory. This large industrial site (90000m2), no longer used, is waiting for a new urban project to come.

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这个临时住所专为400人(350名难民和50名吉普赛人社区)而建造。有孩子的家庭和单身妇女可以在这里居住6个月。这样的人道主义项目在法国几乎史无前例,这让人想到了当今世界的现状,因此对建筑师来说这似乎是一项非常具有挑战性的任务。

The Emergency shelter is made for 400 people (350 refugees and 50 Roma community). Families, sometimes with children, and isolated women are hosted for 6 months maximum. This humanitarian program is almost an unprecedented situation in France wich leads to think about the current world’s state and appears to be a really challenging mission for the architects.

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定居

建筑的紧急性非常重要。其中的一个问题是:如何为不同文化背景的弱势群体提供具有尊严且功能齐全的住宅?该项目就如同一座小型城镇,概念来源于《居住者》。从公共空间和私密空间,人们很容易融入社区生活。从希腊集市到教堂广场,人们围绕着各个空间,从公共到私密进行过渡。

TO SETTLE
The emergency engage to essential architecture. The first question is: How to offer dignity and functional qualities to a vulnerable population, with different cultures? The project is thought like a little town, a common notion of « habiter » regardless of geographic origin. Between public space and the most intimate space, everyone easily accommodates with a life in community. From the Greek Agora to the Church square (when religion is placed in the city center), people organize their life around this permanent transition from public to private space, from sociability to introversion.

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六个蒙古包形态的空间是多功能用房,它们位于项目的核心部分。巨大的自由空间将它们分隔开来,让这个“小型城镇”形成通常的交通网络。这些地方可以让人们相互交流,孩子们玩游戏,大人们一起聊天。房间陈列在中心空间的两侧,三条街道则将孤寡妇女和夫妇分隔开,另外三条街道则主要服务于家庭。

The six yurts, as multipurpose rooms, are placed in the Shelter’s heart. The vast free space separating them offers several places as a support to this small society of buildings. These places allows people to interract: children play games and people spend time together. The rooms are displayed on both sides of this central space, three streets are for isolated women and couples and three others for families.

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结合临时建筑

该项目于2016年11月2日开工,2017年3月7日竣工,时间为4个月加1周。这些建筑的建造时间非常短,因此建筑师运用了预制建造方式,为了减少施工时间,建筑师同时在两个工地工作,基础设施在工地上建造,预制木模则在Nancy附近的工厂进行。

TO THINK TEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE
Started on November 2, 2016, the construction was completed on March 7, 2017: 4 months and 1 week. The center needed to be built very quickly wich leads us to choose a prefabrication system. To reduce the time of the operation we worked on two constructions site at the same time: the infrastructures were made on site and the prefabricated wood modules in a factory near Nancy.

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这些模块还能够重复利用。这就弹性建筑而言很有意义。这些模块符合循环经济的逻辑,在拆除之后可以进行再利用,因此这些建筑的使用寿命约为5年。

These modules presented also another opportunity: they are reusable. This makes sense in terms of resilient architecture. We could imagine a second life for them, in a logic of circular economy for instance, or be reused by the same owner on another site. This is especially significant because the emergency shelter is planned to stay on this site for 5 years.

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这个项目包括一座学校的改造与扩建,因为原有的学校无法满足如此大的学生规模,同时也没有良好的学习与工作环境。项目场地的几何形状来源于受城市规范约束的区域和一片狭窄地块之间的结合,其中包含有连贯的空间序列,即三个班级、管理用房、电脑室、学习室、厕所和技术室。建筑师将这些空间环绕现有学校和周围建筑而建,然而,项目的第一个挑战在于儿童的规模,因为这些建筑为他们而建造,并提供适当的教育空间。学校适当的尺度设计与整体相呼应,并且与周围的建筑相互作用。

This project consists in a complete remodel and an extension of a school who wasn’t able to host all the children anymore and to offer a better work environment. The geometry of this project is due to an adaptation between a site constrained by urban rules and a narrow parcel, and a consistent program (three classes, administration, computers room, learning room, toilets and technic room). We made it twist around the existing school and the surrounding buildings in order to fit it in the right place. However, the first challenge is function: building for children on their scale, and offering an appropriate educational space. Designed on the right scale and thought as part of a whole, the school is in interaction with surrounding buildings.

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建筑设计:Atelier RITA
地点:法国,伊纳河畔伊夫里
当地建筑师:Valentine Guichardaz-Versini
合作方:Emilie Bonnaire
面积:5000.0平方米
项目年份:2016年
摄影:David Boureau

Architects: Atelier RITA
Location: 94200 Ivry-sur-Seine, France
Local Architect: Valentine Guichardaz-Versini
Collaborator: Emilie Bonnaire
Area: 5000.0 m2
Project Year: 2016
Photographs: David Boureau

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